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Werkwoorde - Verbs

Spend time here to understand the big picture.

Concept 1: Active and Passive Voice

• Understand that all sentences are either active or passive. (Research this on the Web).
• Assume all verbs in the ACTIVE VOICE, except when you get to B2-4 (viii) where you will learn the PASSIVE VOICE.

Concept 2: Main and Helping Verbs

The main verb expresses the action. The helping verb explains the tense or mood.

Concept 3. Main Verbs are simplex or complex

Complex means two parts of meaning - descriptor and active verb (e.g. over and estimate = overestimate)

Simplex means a root verb, like 'thow' and then you get a root with a prefix added like 'prevent' or the two special verbs (to have and to be) and their inflected forms in the past and future.

Inseparable

Separable

B1: CONJUGATED
      [only these two: (a) wees, (b) hê]

B2: REGULAR
      [Ex. sit, loop, slaap]

B3a: PREFIXED
      [Ex. besing, verkoop, ontvang]

B3b: COMPOUND -- Inseparable,
       [Ex. huisves, glimlag, waarsku]

B4: HELPING VERBS
      (i)Time [het, sal, gaan]
      (ii) Modals [kan, wil, mag, moet]

B5: Compounds
      [Examples: omgooi, volhou, gelukwens,
       goedkeur, agterkom. liefhê, grootword]

Graphic explanation:
-- Circles mean it is a closed list of verbs.
--Triangles mean the verbs listed are just a sample

Verb Types:

These three types could be regular, prefixed, or compound verbs.

Transitive - action goes from subject to object.
[Example: I open the door.]

Intransitve - action stays with the subject.
[Example: I think.]

Reflexive - action stays with the subject and it is indicated with a pronoun.
[Examples: To be mistaken is a personal thing. Ek het my misgis. Note, misgis is an inseparable compound verb.]

Gerunds:

Gerunds are verbs, now acting as adjectives.

Present Tense:
[Examples: werkende - Die werkende man is siek. Die werkende vrou help hulle.]

Past Tense:
[Examples: gebruikte - Die gebruikte kar sal ek nie verkoop nie.
gedrukte - Die gedrukte boeke verkoop baie goed.]

Your objective:
(i) to understand what is happening
(ii) prove that you understand it by doing
(iii) practice till it is automatic

Able to explain and do:
1 - Explain (with examples in any tense) what a conjugated verb is.
2 - Explain (with examples in any tense) what a regular verb is.
3 - Explain (with examples) the difference between a regular verb and a prefixed verb?
4 - Explain (with examples in any tense) what an inseparable compound verb is. Which other verb is just like it?

In the intermediate section, you will learn more about separable compound verbs, reflexive verbs, and gerunds.